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Kamis, 15 November 2012

Present Perfect Tense


Present perfect tense is used to express an action beginning in the past, but the action still related in the mind of speaker with the moment of speaking.
It is used to refer to : 
·         An action or situation which began in the past and still current.
·         An action or event which took place in the past, where the exact time of the event is not specified or not clear.
·         An action or event which has just happened.

The formula of Present Perfect Tense is:
1.      Verbal
·         (+) S+ Have/has + V3 + O/C
example : She has learned to speak Spanish.
·        (-)  S + have/has + not + V3 + O/C
example : I have not changed one bit.
·        (?) Have/Has + S + V3 + O/C +?
example : Have you cleaned your room yet?
2.    Nominal
·        (+) S + Have/has + Been+ Compliment
Example : I have been to Tokyo.
·        (-) S + Have/Has + Not + Been + Compliment
Example : I have not been quite myself since the accident.
·        (?) Have/has+ S + Been + Compliment + ?
Example : Have you been quite yourself since the accident ?

Actions that happened at an unspecified time before the present:
How many times have you been to Tokyo?

Stacy has become very successful.

How has she done it?

They have never eaten there before.

You have changed so much!

She hasn't found the time yet.


We have seen this movie ten times.

I don't believe we have met. My name is David.

She has never been so surprised.

Actions that ended recently:
I have just sold the last one.

Sue has broken the glass.

How has she done it?

Mom has just found out about it, and she is not pleased.

They have already won. Let's go home.

I have made a special dish just for you.

She hasn't finished her homework yet.
States that started in the past, and are still going on
(Note: this is a broader use of this tense. It is usually used with states, not actions):
I have thought about it for two hours.

You have been sick since last week.

Since when have you been sick?

Kelly has had cats since I can remember.

Sophie has always loved shopping.


Taylor has lived here since 1992.

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